Nidhi Patel, Marcela Sordo
Salivary Biomarkers associated with Systemic and Oral Diseases
Nidhi Patel, Marcela Sordo, and Josephine Esquivel-Upshaw, D.M.D.
Josephine Esquivel-Upshaw, D.M.D.
College of Dentistry
Objective: The aim of this project is to determine oral and systemic diseases which are detectable through oral fluids by conducting a literature review of articles from the past 20 years.
Methods: Using various search engines to find scholarly articles, 22 prevalent oral and systemic diseases were selected based on evidence of correlation with salivary biomarkers. Terms such as “systemic diseases detected in the oral cavity” and “salivary biomarkers” were used to search through PubMed, Google Scholar, and dental and medical journals. Initially, 250 articles were examined and around 82 articles were selected because they provided appropriate information along with a practical scope of application. At this point, 18 diseases were made into folders where articles pertaining to each respective disease were placed. A separate chart was created to include information about the cause/risk factors of disease, symptoms, consequences, methods of detection for the disease, salivary biomarkers, methods of the detection for the salivary biomarkers, and cures/treatments for the disease.
Results: Different salivary biomarkers were present in varying amounts for each respective disease. The biomarkers included proteins, antibodies, and hormones that correlate with imbalances in the body. For example, research on sickle cell anemia showed that disease was associated with a higher level of salivary malondialdehyde and diabetes with a higher level of salivary amylase and glucose.
Conclusion: The oral cavity represents an important gateway in the detection of 18 diseases that impact countless individuals. Through research on these oral biomarkers, diseases may be prevented and diagnosed earlier.
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